Image Stripper Religious Get exited with a different Devotional Image on every level. In Image Stripper, devote yourself to God. It has very simple rule: Clear the covered Picture to get wonderful Spiritual image! Avoid the Killer moving balls to save your life. The first two levels may be a cakewalk with a retreat, but the last three will force you to move strategically and to act very fast.
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Europe Learn the richness of tourist destinations using images collected from millions of volunteers on the global web